Guide A Place to Be: Brazilian, Guatemalan, and Mexican Immigrants in Floridas New Destinations

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U.S. reaches yet another asylum deal in Central America, this time with Honduras

Mexican Foreign Secretary Marcelo Ebrard said Monday that his government would consider a regional asylum agreement if enforcement measures agreed to last week in Washington fail to stem the tide of migrants northward. The potential regional asylum pact — reported by several media outlets last week —was the mysterious "very important" concession that Trump referenced in a tweet Monday morning, Ebrard said.

In Washington, President Donald Trump intensified his defense of the widely panned agreement with Mexico, even calling into a cable news show for nearly half an hour Monday to proclaim the deal as a victory. After a weekend during which he railed against news reports poking holes in his claims — some of which are so far unsubstantiated — that Mexico had agreed to significant new concessions on immigration enforcement to avert tariffs, the president took to the airwaves to argue his case.

And they wouldn't get there. Ebrard contradicted Trump's claim over the weekend that Mexico had agreed to increase purchases of U. But Ebrard said the parties would meet and evaluate the efficacy of the immigration measures in 45 days, a tighter timeline than the 90 days mentioned in the joint agreement. Mexico's top diplomat stressed that the U.

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His mission was accomplished in the Treaty of Kanagawa. The United States also took military action against Korea in and imposed the Treaty of Amity and Commerce on the kingdom in Trade and commerce with Asia led to the movement of people. The Chinese started to arrive during the California Gold Rush — , along with tens of thousands of migrants from Latin America, Europe, and Australia.

The Japanese came next, followed by the Koreans. From the British colony also arrived Asian Indians. An law and its amendments, known as the Chinese Exclusion Acts, barred the entry of Chinese laborers for sixty-one years. Diplomatic negotiations between the United States and Japan excluded Japanese laborers in A immigration law denied entry to those from the British colony in India.

Sentiment against Filipino migration played a crucial role in the ideological and moral debate over American empire, leading to the enactment of the Tydings-McDuffie Act. Granting independence to the Philippines in ten years, the new law changed the status of Filipinos from nationals to aliens and reduced Filipino immigration to fifty per year.

These laws prevented Asian immigration and effectively limited the growth of the Asian American population. Asian exclusion began to end during World War II. The end of Chinese exclusion in was hardly a genuine measure of immigration reform. Endorsed by Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Magnuson D-WA , repealed all the Chinese exclusion acts, provided an annual quota of for Chinese immigration, and granted Chinese immigrants naturalization rights.

The repeal of Chinese exclusion opened the door for other Asian groups almost immediately. In , the government ended exclusion of Filipinos and Indians, providing the Philippines and India each a quota of one hundred. Pakistan received the same quota after it gained independence in Because Japan was the wartime enemy, Japanese exclusion continued for several more years, until The law also made all Asian immigrants eligible for naturalization.

Some scholars view the McCarran-Walter Act as a product of nativism, because it perpetuated the national origins quota system established in the Immigration Act. Others, however, see it as progressive. The repeal of exclusion laws indeed laid the demographic basis for the expansion of Asian immigration. Two years after the repeal of Chinese exclusion, the War Brides Act granted admissions to spouses and children of U.

And in , another act allowed Chinese wives of American citizens to enter as non-quota immigrants. More Asian women arrived in the s and s under the McCarran-Walter Act, which provided non-quota status for spouses and minor children of U. As a byproduct of the postwar U.

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For the first time, the majority Asian newcomers were female, which helped balance the sex ratio of Asian populations in the United States. The male-to-female ratio among Chinese Americans, for example, went from 2. Refugee policies formulated during this period reflected this change.

Pressure to accommodate refugees began during the war. In , the government used administrative measures to accept thousands of individuals who escaped from Germany and German-occupied Europe. Established in , the War Refugee Board facilitated the entry of European refugees, the majority of whom were Jewish. Later, the government also developed ways to enable these refugees to become permanent immigrants.

Immediately after the war, the United States was pressured to deal with the over thirty million dislocated Europeans, including a million displaced persons DPs who had been forced from their homelands during the war. President Harry S. Truman issued a directive in to allocate half of the European quotas for refugee admissions. Enacted in and amended in , the displaced persons acts authorized the admission of , individuals in two years.

These measures were developed within the framework of the existing immigration law by allowing nations to mortgage their future quotas. The DP acts eventually admitted four hundred thousand Europeans; 16 percent of them were Jewish. In the McCarran-Walter Act, refugee policies were incorporated into immigration regulation.

As this practice continued, the VOLAGS and the religious and ethnic groups involved in them also began to influence American immigration policy. International politics during the Cold War led to more lenient immigration policies for those who claimed to be political refugees from communist nations.

The increasing pressure to accept more and more political refugees and allow them to adjust their legal status made immigration reform inevitable. The Refugee Relief Act abandoned the mortgaging practices of the DP acts, admitting , refugees as non-quota immigrants.

The s and s saw an influx of Hungarian refugees who rebelled against the communist government and Cuban refugees after communists took over during the Cuban Revolution. Coming from a western hemisphere nation, the Cubans were not subject to quota restrictions. In , Congress defined refugees to be those persons fleeing persecution in communist countries or nations in the Middle East.

The Immigration Act included refugees in the preference system and provided a quota of up to 10, Although the Immigration Act imposed a numerical ceiling for western hemisphere nations, President Lyndon B. Johnson introduced an open-door policy for Cuba, promising to admit every refugee from there. Most successful asylum petitions were filed by individuals from communist countries. In alone a total of 7, of immigrants from the Soviet Union, Poland, and Romania adjusted their status through asylum.

In the years since political asylum was a major means for undocumented individuals or temporary visa holders from China to adjust legal status. A act provided admissions to three hundred thousand Soviet Jews, Pentecostal Christians, and Armenians. Between and , more than , individuals from war-torn Bosnia and Herzegovina were granted asylum. Like those who came with refugee status, immigrants who were granted asylum could work and receive government assistance.

Cold War politics also brought the United States into the war in Vietnam in the late s.

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More than half a million U. After the gradual withdrawal of American troops, North Vietnamese forces took control of the country. Thousands of Vietnamese fled with the assistance of the American embassy after the fall of Saigon in April ; among them were former South Vietnamese officials, military personnel, and individuals who had close ties with Americans. More individuals left by their own means for other nations. This refugee crisis caught the U.

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Between and , Presidents Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter used their executive power to create one refugee program after another, allocating more slots each time. Some four hundred thousand refugees were admitted, including not only Vietnamese but also Cambodians and Laotians who fled after communists took power in their countries.

The exodus continued throughout the s and early s, as large groups of Southeast Asians crossed the borders to refugee camps in Thailand.