If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Journal of Food Science Volume 51, Issue 2. Search for more papers by this author. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access.
Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. ABSTRACT A highly sensitive liquid chromatographic procedure with electrochemical detection ECD was developed to separate and quantitate major capsaicins, the pungent principles of red and green pepper. Citing Literature.
Volume 51 , Issue 2 March Pages Hyperhidrosis is an excessive sweating disease which can bring severe psychological burden and affect the quality of life of patients negatively. There are a variety of medical treatments and surgery for treating primary hyperhidrosis. However, the side effects of these drugs include thirst, dry eyes, dizziness, drowsiness, constipation, and urinary retention, which limit the scope of their use. Surgical treatment is mainly applied to patients who are not suitable for the abovementioned methods.
Surgery is more traumatized and risky than other treatments. Therefore, surgical operation should be as a second or third option [ 3 ]. There is still a paucity of effective nonsurgical therapies. With the development of modern society, the elimination of body odour is given more and more people's attention; this article is about introducing Sanhuang gypsum soup SGS which is a significant antiperspirant. Through the use of classical Chinese medicine SGS to regulate the internal environment of the human body, it achieves a good antiperspirant effect with small side and remarkable effects, which make up for deficiency of some medicine and surgery.
Every year, more than ten thousands of patients have benefited from SGS by reducing excessive perspiration symptoms. SGS is a hospital preparation of Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which consists of coptidis rhizoma, phellodendri chinensis cortex, scutellariae radix, scrophulariae radix, anemarrhenae rhizome, gardeniae fructus, cinnamomi cortex, glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma preparata cum melle, and gypsum fibrosum. These herbs can be used for treating and could exhibit action on excessive perspiration through anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.
Studies have shown that SGS has many chemical constituents such as mangiferin, geniposide, coptisine, wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, baicalinin, and cinnamic aldehyde [ 4 — 13 ] in accordance with herbs and preparations known to be beneficial for the treatment of excessive perspiration through anti-inflammatory properties and so on. Although the SGS is prepared as a prescription with the combination of these herbs in well-defined formulae, no standard quality control method for this product has been reported up to now.
Since the effect of SGS might result from the synergy of multiple components, a reliable, sensitive, and uncomplicated quantitative method based on the diverse constituents is need to be developed. Due to the variety of components of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, any one of the active ingredients cannot reflect the overall curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine.
Therefore, a comprehensive macroscopic analysis will become an inevitable trend.
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Under the premise of efficacy, toxicology, and clinical trials which have confirmed safety and efficacy of preparation, we can not only verify the authenticity of the preparation but also determine whether the stability of the quality exists or not along with a practical fingerprint. Unlike the content determination, the fingerprint can provide more informative and useful message than the determination of any single component. One of the first measures that China's State Drug Administration has taken to strengthen the supervision of traditional Chinese medicine injections requires the research on the fingerprint of injections, which has taken into account its necessity and feasibility.
It is accepted that preparation of acceptable quality can be exerted on its drug efficacy, what really matters is establishing an accurate and easy method. Previously, our laboratory has researched on the fingerprints of the existing preparations which have been applied in the control of preparation quality.
Also, to make up for the limitations of fingerprint that cannot be quantified accurately, a QAMS method using berberine as the standard was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitative of 14 components [ 16 ]. This strategy can not only reduce the cost of the experiment and time of detection but also be independent of the availability of all the target ingredients [ 15 ].
Our results showed that no significant difference was found in the results between our established QAMS method and the external standard method. No one has yet studied the fingerprints of SGS; this article first established the SGS fingerprinting method and also used the QAMS method to measure the preparation of 14 kinds of pharmacodynamics components. This method could potentially be applied for the identification of qualitative and quantitative quality of SGS.
This HPLC fingerprint method, therefore, provides a comprehensive platform for quality evaluation of SGS with more chemical information. Our findings offer a new routine for assessing the quality of TCM. The chromatographic separation was performed on an AmethyC 18 4. The batch numbers and origins of eight qualified Chinese herbal pieces of decoction are shown in Table 1.
Each single piece preparations and its negative preparations are made by our laboratory as per the preparation standard process. Mangiferin, geniposide, liquiritin, epiberberine, coptisine, baicalin, palmatine, berberine, harpagosid, wogonoside, cinnamic acid, cinnamic aldehyde, baicalein, glycyrrhizic acid, and wogonin were all supplied by Chengdu Mansi Biotechnology Co. A Milli-Q water Millipore, Inc. All solutions were filtered through 0. A mixed stock solution containing reference standards was prepared by dissolving weighed samples of each compound in methanol accurately.
Then, the stock solutions were diluted to establish the calibration curves based on six appropriate concentrations with the ranges of 2. Mobile phase consists of 0. Flow rate: 0.
On the basis of chromatographic conditions, all the components had good resolution. The similarity among different chromatograms was determined by calculating the correlative coefficient or cosine value of the vectorial angle [ 17 — 19 ]. At present, there are no single liquid phase conditions that can divide 15 components of SGS with good resolution. As the ingredients of SGS are very intricate, it is critical to establish a favorable mobile phase system, gradient elution system, and detection wavelength to obtain efficient separation of the numerous target components.
In this case, some different mobile phases were tested which were acetonitrile-water, methanol-water, methanol-water containing phosphoric acid or formic acid at different concentrations, acetonitrile-water with acetic acid, formic acid, and phosphoric acid at different concentrations. Experimental results show that acetonitrile-water containing 0. Chromatogram with the maximum number of peaks also relies on best conditions for preparation of sample solution.
On the basis of the investigation of different solvent and ultrasonic time, it can be concluded that samples are dissolved in methanol and ultrasound 30 minutes; we can get better resolution and reproducibility of fingerprint chromatograms under the conditions of Section 2.
Under the above chromatographic conditions, all the components were well separated Figure 1. A mixed solution containing all the reference substances were prepared and diluted in series with methanol to obtain six different concentrations. The different concentration of the mixed solution was used for constructing the reference curve.
In response to sample concentration, the peak area of the analyte is determined by least squares linear regression to obtain a linear equation. The RSD of mangiferin, geniposide, liquiritin, epiberberine, coptisine, baicalin, palmatine, berberine, harpagosid, wogonoside, cinnamic acid, cinnamic aldehyde, baicalein, glycyrrhizic acid, and wogonin was 1. To confirm the repeatability of the method, six independently prepared solutions from the same batch were analyzed.
The RSD values of the peak area was 0. The results indicated the method is reproducible. The recovery was performed by adding a known amount of individual standards into a certain amount of the SGS sample. The mixture was extracted and analyzed by using the method mentioned above. The average recoveries of 6 samples are shown in Table 3. The results show that the method is accurate. The recoveries of the 15 compounds which are shown in Table 3 ranged from Thirteen batches of samples were prepared according to Section 2.
Food analysis by HPLC
We selected S 1 as the reference chromatogram, the utilization of the average correlation coefficient method of 13 batches of samples for multipoint correction, time window width is set to 0. Fingerprint chromatograms of 13 batches of SGS can be seen in Figure 3. As compared with the reference fingerprint chromatograms, the similarities of 13 batches of samples shown in Table 4 , and the results are all above 0. On the basis of these results, we concluded that SGS between different batches are of good consistency and in line with the relevant requirements of the fingerprints.
Palmatine is the main active ingredient of coptidis rhizoma; the corresponding peaks have favorable resolution, and the retention time is stable and moderate. Therefore, we selected palmatine no.